上海基诺彩票中奖号码

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這是針對英文原版頁面的中文翻譯。

初始聲明

這是GNU工程的初始聲明,于1983年9月27日由Richard Stallman提出。

GNU工程的實際歷史和這個初始聲明有各種不同。比如,其實際開始日期晚至1984年1月。多個關于自由軟件的哲學概念直到幾年之后才得以澄清。

自由的Unix!

從這個感恩節開始,我將編寫一個完全和Unix兼容的軟件系統,它叫做GNU(意思是Gnu's Not Unix,GNU并非Unix),并且我會將它分發給能夠使用的人,供他們自由(1)使用。我迫切需要大家貢獻時間、金錢、程序和設備。

一開始,GNU會有一個內核加上一系列編寫和運行C程序所需要的應用:編輯器、shell、C編譯器、連接器、匯編器以及一些其他程序。此后,我們會加入文本排版工具、YACC、帝國游戲、電子表格和數百個其他應用。最終,我們希望能夠提供通常一個Unix系統帶有的所有有用的東西,此外還有Unix不帶的所有其他有用的東西,包括在線和實質的文檔。

GNU將能夠運行Unix程序,但是它將不完全和Unix一樣。根據我們在其他操作系統上的體驗,我們會在GNU上實現所有我們覺得方便的改進。特別地,我們的計劃中包括更長的文件名、文件版本號、防崩潰的文件系統、文件名自動完成(可能的話)、終端無關的顯示支持,以及最終實現一個基于Lisp的窗口系統,它支持Lisp程序和普通Unix程序分享一個屏幕。C和Lisp都可以作為系統編程語言。我們將會有基于MIT chaosnet協議的網絡軟件,這遠比UUCP要優越。我們也許也會有一些和UUCP兼容的程序。

我是誰?

我叫Richard Stallman,是那個被到處模仿的EMACS編輯器的原始發明者,我現在在麻省理工學院的人工智能實驗室。我一直專注于編譯器、編輯器、調試器、命令解釋器、ITS(不兼容分時系統)和Lisp Machine操作系統的工作。我是ITS系統上終端無關顯示支持的開拓者。此外,我在Lisp machine上實現了一個防崩潰的文件系統和兩個窗口管理系統。

為什么我必須編寫GNU

我信奉的金科玉律是如果我喜歡一個程序,那么我必須要和其他喜歡該程序的人分享。簽署保密協議或軟件許可證協議會使我的良心不安。

我決定組合一系列充分的自由軟件來讓我擺脫非自由軟件的限制,這樣我就可以在不違背自己的原則的情況下繼續使用電腦。

你該如何做貢獻

我請求計算機制造商捐贈設備和金錢。我請求個人捐贈程序和作品。

有一家計算機制造商已經要提供一臺機器,但是我們需要更多。如果你捐贈了機器,那么你可以預期GNU會早一點在你的機器上運行。這些機器最好能在居民區操作,而不是要求復雜的冷卻或供電設施。

獨立的程序員可以編寫并貢獻一些和Unix應用兼容的原樣復制程序,你們可以把它交給我。對大多數項目來說,這種業余時間進行的分散式工作很難協調;這些獨立編寫的部件可能無法一起工作。但是對于替代Unix應用的這部分特定任務,沒有問題。其中,大多數接口規格由Unix的兼容性決定。如果每個人的貢獻都能在Unix上工作,那么它極可能也在GNU上工作。

如果有了金錢上的捐助,我可能會雇傭一些全職或兼職的人。薪水不高,但是我要找的人要明白他們的工作是在幫助人類,這和金錢一樣重要。我認為這是在為那些愿意全身心投入到GNU工作中的人們提供一個不用再尋找其他謀生手段的機會。

如需更多信息,請聯系我。

Arpanet mail:
[email protected]

Usenet:
[email protected]
[email protected]

US Snail:
Richard Stallman
166 Prospect St
Cambridge, MA 02139

“free”一詞選得不好。

這里的用詞不太嚴謹。其初衷是人們不必支付費用來獲得使用GNU系統的許可。但是此處用詞沒有明確這一點,而且人們通常會理解成這是在說GNU的拷貝總是廉價或不花錢的。原意絕不是這樣的。

原始消息

為了完整,原始的郵件列在下面,并且保留原始的格式。



From CSvax:pur-ee:[email protected]
From: RMS%[email protected]
Newsgroups: net.unix-wizards,net.usoft
Subject: new Unix implementation
Date: Tue, 27-Sep-83 12:35:59 EST
Organization: MIT AI Lab, Cambridge, MA

Free Unix!

Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete
Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix), and
give it away free(1) to everyone who can use it.
Contributions of time, money, programs and equipment are greatly
needed.

To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed to
write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker,
assembler, and a few other things.  After this we will add a text
formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of
other things.  We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that
normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including
on-line and hardcopy documentation.

GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical
to Unix.  We will make all improvements that are convenient, based
on our experience with other operating systems.  In particular,
we plan to have longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof
file system, filename completion perhaps, terminal-independent
display support, and eventually a Lisp-based window system through
which several Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.
Both C and Lisp will be available as system programming languages.
We will have network software based on MIT's chaosnet protocol,
far superior to UUCP.  We may also have something compatible
with UUCP.


Who Am I?

I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original much-imitated EMACS
editor, now at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.  I have worked
extensively on compilers, editors, debuggers, command interpreters, the
Incompatible Timesharing System and the Lisp Machine operating system.
I pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS.  In addition I
have implemented one crashproof file system and two window systems for
Lisp machines.


Why I Must Write GNU

I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I
must share it with other people who like it.  I cannot in good
conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license
agreement.

So that I can continue to use computers without violating my principles,
I have decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that
I will be able to get along without any software that is not free.


How You Can Contribute

I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money.
I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.

One computer manufacturer has already offered to provide a machine.  But
we could use more.  One consequence you can expect if you donate
machines is that GNU will run on them at an early date.  The machine had
better be able to operate in a residential area, and not require
sophisticated cooling or power.

Individual programmers can contribute by writing a compatible duplicate
of some Unix utility and giving it to me.  For most projects, such
part-time distributed work would be very hard to coordinate; the
independently-written parts would not work together.  But for the
particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent.  Most
interface specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility.  If each
contribution works with the rest of Unix, it will probably work
with the rest of GNU.

If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or
part time.  The salary won't be high, but I'm looking for people for
whom knowing they are helping humanity is as important as money.  I view
this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their full energies to
working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in another way.


For more information, contact me.
Arpanet mail:
  [email protected]

Usenet:
  [email protected]
  [email protected]

US Snail:
  Richard Stallman
  166 Prospect St
  Cambridge, MA 02139
最頂

[FSF 標志]“自由軟件基金會(FSF)是一個非盈利組織。我們的使命是在全球范圍內促進計算機用戶的自由。我們捍衛所有軟件用戶的權利。”

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